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conditional – Karina

Posted by dadangiskandar on July 13, 2009

Conditional Sentences / If-Clauses Type I, II and III

Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences.

Conditional Sentence Type 1

Conditional 1

Often called the “real” conditional because it is used for real – or possible – situations. These situations take place if a certain condition is met.

NOTE

In the conditional 1 we often use unless which means ‘if … not’. In other words, ‘…unless he hurries up.’ could also be written, ‘…if he doesn’t hurry up.’.

If it rains, we will stay at home.
He will arrive late unless he hurries up.
Peter will buy a new car, if he gets his raise.

Conditional 1 is formed by the use of the present simple in the if clause followed by a comma will verb (base form) in the result clause. You can also put the result clause first without using a comma between the clauses.

If he finishes on time, we will go to the movies.
OR
We will go to the movies if he finishes on time.

→ It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.

Form: if + Simple Present, will-Future

Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.

 

 

 

Conditional Sentence Type 2

Conditional 2

Often called the “unreal” conditional because it is used for unreal – impossible or improbable – situations. This conditional provides an imaginary result for a given situation.

NOTE

The verb ‘to be’, when used in the 2nd conditional, is always conjugated as ‘were’.

If he studied more, he would pass the exam.
I would lower taxes if I were the President.
They would buy a new house if they had more money.

Conditional 2 is formed by the use of the past simple in the if clause followed by a comma would verb (base form) in the result clause. You can also put the result clause first without using a comma between the clauses.

If they had more money, they would buy a new house.
OR
They would buy a new house if they had more money.

→ It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.

Form: if + Simple Past, Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)

Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

Conditional Sentence Type 3

Conditional 3

Often referred to as the “past” conditional because it concerns only past situations with hypothetical results. Used to express a hypothetical result to a past given situation.

If he had known that, he would have decided differently.
Jane would have found a new job if she had stayed in Boston.

Conditional 3 is formed by the use of the past perfect in the if clause followed by a comma would have past participle in the result clause. You can also put the result clause first without using a comma between the clauses.

If Alice had won the competition, life would have changed OR Life would have changed if Alice had won the competition.

→ It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past.

Form: if + Past Perfect, Conditional II (= would + have + Past Participle)

Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

 

Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)

Reported speech is used to express what others have said. It is also useful when you are writing a paper at college level. In this case, it involves paraphrasing and summarizing what different authors have said.

In spoken discourse there are certain rules to follow. First of all, to make sentences in reported speech you need verbs like say or tell.

On the other hand the tense used to express and idea is also an important factor. Take into consideration the following chart:

Direct Speech Reported Speech
  • Present Tense
  • Future with “Going to”
  • Present Perfect
  • Sentences with “Can”
  • Future with “Will”  
  • Present Progressive
  • Simple Past Tense
  • Past with “Going to”
  • Past Perfect
  • Sentences with “Could”
  • Sentences with “Would”
  • Past Progressive

Look at the following examples:

Direct Speech Reported Speech
  • Julia:”I live in my own apartment”.
  • Nick:”I am going to visit my parents next weekend”.
  • Tom:”I have studied Italian for a year”.
  • Linda and John: “We can’t come to the party next week”.
  • Terry: “I’ll write as soon as I get there”.
  • Andrew:”I’m learning to cook Chinese food”.
  • She said that she lived in her own apartment
  • He said he was going to visit his parents next weekend.
  • Tom said he had studied Italina for a year.
  • They said they couldn’t come to the party next week.
  • She said that she would write as soon as he got there.
  • He said he was learning to cook Chinese food.

If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, you need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech. The structure is a little different depending on whether you want to transform a statement, question or request.

Statements

When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
  • place and time expressions
  • tenses (backshift)

Type

Example

direct speech “I speak English.”
reported speech
(no backshift)
He says that he speaks English.
reported speech
(backshift)
He said that he spoke English.

Questions

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
  • place and time expressions
  • tenses (backshift)

Also note that you have to:

  • transform the question into an indirect question
  • use the interrogative or if / whether

Type

Example

with interrogative direct speech “Why don’t you speak English?”
reported speech He asked me why I didn’t speak English.
without interrogative direct speech “Do you speak English?”
reported speech He asked me whether / if I spoke English.

Requests

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • place and time expressions

Type

Example

direct speech “Carol, speak English.“
reported speech He told Carol to speak English.

One Response to “conditional – Karina”

  1. Dewi Hastuti ADNI A 2009 said

    Assalam Pak,

    apakah postingan Bapak ini untuk materi UAS?

    Makasi Pak, Wassalam

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